For this week’s “Greener By The Minute” post, we’re sharing with you the top 10 “greenest” presidents and next week we will tell you the top 9 “worst for the environment” presidents we’ve had in the United States. Can you guess who is on each list?
Top Green Presidents:
1.Â To begin, when most Americans think of green presidents, they probably envision Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909). “TR” consistently lobbied Congress for wilderness protection, used the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 to set aside 150 million acres of timberland as public domains, and oversaw creation of the U.S. Forest Service. Roosevelt also created 50 wildlife refuges and five national parks.Â Beyond those accomplishments, TR is well remembered as popularizing the ideas of good resource stewardship and respect for nature. That’s not to say everything was idyllic in those years of heavy logging, mining, urbanization and rapid human expansion, but seeds of consciousness were sown.
2.Â In response to the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) created the Department of Energy in 1977, with a key goal being the establishment of a national energy policy that promoted clean and alternative fuels. Carter famously installed solar panels on the White House roof and set the mansion’s thermostats at 68 degrees to save energy.Â Carter’s 1977 speech calling on the countryÂ to drastically ramp up energy efficiency and conservation is truly inspiring and ahead of its time. President Carter also oversaw passage of a number of other important laws, including the Soil and Water Conservation Act, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, the Antarctic Conservation Act, the Endangered American Wilderness Act and the Superfund Act (remember when laws that sound green actuallyÂ were green?). Tighter amendments were passed on the Clean Air Act, and the Alaskan National Interest Lands Conservation Act conserved more than 100 million acres and 26 rivers in America’s Last Frontier.
3.Â Brilliant Renaissance man Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) is well known as the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. Few also know that Jefferson was an avid botanist, scientist, architect, inventor, planner and philosopher (as well as slave owner, unfortunately). As president Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark on a groundbreaking voyage of exploration and research across America, after having secured the Louisiana Purchase. So little was known about the continent by whites that the explorers were asked to look for evidence of still-living wooly mammoths. Lewis and Clark then became the first to document many of America’s indigenous species, as well as peoples.
4.Â EnvironmentalistsÂ often sigh when they muse on Bill Clinton’s legacy (1993-2001), which isn’t as green as one might hope, particularly since he had Al Gore as Vice President. He used executive orders to create 17 new national monuments, and expand four more, preserving more than 4.6 million acres, more than any other administration. Clinton also increased protection for wetlands and old-growth forests and finalized a sweeping rule that banned road building on nearly 60 million acres of wilderness in national forests. The administration also extended an existing moratorium on offshore oil leases — something that is now hotly debated.Â Clinton did secure more than $3 billion — a 50% increase in annual funding — to research and develop clean energy technologies. He also strengthened the Drinking Water Act, advanced cleanup of Superfund sites, and bolstered the EPA’s ability to go after polluters (something else that wouldn’t last).
5.Â Richard Nixon (1969-1974) was president during tumultuous times, and is consistently rated as one of the country’s most disliked leaders, in no small part because of his role in the Watergate scandal. But Richard Nixon had also faced tremendous pressure to do something for the environment, after 20 million people took to the streets on Earth Day in 1970.Â Responding to a 60s-era public, Nixon signed the bills that established the Environmental Protection Agency and the landmark Clean Air Act. Going further, in 1972 Nixon signed the Coastal Zone Management Act; the Ocean Dumping Act; the Marine Mammal Protection Act; the Federal Insecticide, Fungide, Rodenticide Act; and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Nixon’s term also saw passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973 and the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974.
6.Â Inheriting a deeply troubled country in the throes of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl, President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) showed innovative leadership. In order to put people to work and improve and protect the landscape, FDR created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Part of his New Deal, more than 2.5 million Americans planted millions of trees, opened summer camps, improved parks and trails, battled soil erosion and safeguarded other infrastructure and the environment.Â FDR’s terms also saw creation of the Soil Conservation Service and the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act. Soil began to be viewed as an invaluable, and largely non-renewable, resource, and measures were taken to promote long-term productivity and soil health.
7.Â Consistently rated as America’s greatest president, Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) is best known for leading the country through the Civil War and ending slavery. Lincoln established California’s spectacular Yosemite Valley and its Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias as a public trust, marking the first time land was set aside specifically for public enjoyment (and laying the groundwork for the national parks system).Â In 1862 Lincoln established the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 1863 he authorized the establishment of the National Academy of Sciences, which would go on to lead the world in promoting and fostering innovation.
8.Â Controversial for his authoritative style and role in the Vietnam War, Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) also spearheaded civil rights laws, and his “Great Society” bolstered education and established Medicare, Medicaid and other social programs, as well as several environmental initiatives. In 1964 the president signed the Wilderness Act, which was written by the Wilderness Society, and which protected more than 9 million acres of federal land. The Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 provided matching grants for large-scale rail projects.Â These days, greens probably remember LBJ best for his wife, the venerable Lady Bird Johnson, who tirelessly advocated for protection of natural resources. The First Lady promoted parks and beautification projects, fought to restrict billboards and worked to protect and plant millions of wildflowers. She is famous for saying “where flowers bloom, so does hope.”
9.Â Often regarded as among the brightest presidents, Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) had been a leading intellectual of the Progressive Era. Wilson oversaw creation of the National Park Service in 1916, which has long been considered one of the great treasures of the nation. He also spearheaded the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, which established cooperative extension services through the land-grant universities to disseminate information on agriculture and other topics.Â Wilson’s anti-trust and labor laws probably helped set the stage for future environmental regulations, by increasing government oversight of corporate America.
10.Â Like many Americans at the time, John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) was reportedly influenced by Rachel Carson’s groundbreaking bookÂ Silent Spring. As a result the president established a committee to investigate the impacts of pesticides on health and the environment. The subsequent report was critical of the industry and lax government policies.Â This investigation would help lay the groundwork for the establishment of the EPA and modern environmental protection laws.Â JFK’s brother (and attorney general) Robert F. KennedyÂ spoke passionately about the need to curtail consumption and protect the planet in 1968, shortly before he was assassinated. Today, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. serves as one of the country’s leading advocate lawyers and environmentalists.
Do you agree or disagree with any of the people on this list? Who do you predict will be among the 9 worst presidents we’ve had for our environment?
Courtesy of TheDailyGreen.com.